Hudson Heads Nchgr Policy Office

Kathy Hudson has joined the NIH National Center for Human Genome Research (NCHGR) as Assistant Director for Policy Coordination. As head of the newly created Office for Policy Coordination, Hudson will be responsible for the Office of Communications, Office of Program Planning, and Office of Legislation.

Before joining NCHGR, Hudson was Senior Policy Analyst in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the Department of Health and Human Services. She advised the Assistant Secretary on national health and science policy issues involving NIH. Before that, she was a Congressional Science fellow.

Hudson's training and professional experiences will provide focus and leadership in public policy and public affairs issues relating to NCHGR programs. She will coordinate NCHGR Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications activities.

Hudson received her B.A. in biology at Carleton College in Minnesota, M.S. in microbiology from the University of Chicago, and Ph.D. in molecular biology from the University of California, Berkeley. She has received numerous awards, including the Secretary's Special Recognition Award, Assistant Secretary for Health Special Recognition Award, and science fellowships from the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment and American Society for Microbiology.

Denver Schools ? A Closer Look

Denver, Colorado?Home of the Mile-High stadium, a city with amazing scenery and a high altitude. It is one in which Denver Public Schools have set lofty goals for themselves. All school districts have mission statements, visions, and school improvement plans. Denver Schools break their goals down into three areas:

1. Set high expectations for all students.
2. Raise the overall achievement level.
3. Close the achievement gap.

How well are the Denver Schools going? Well, to meet these goals, the district is focusing on six strategies; enhancing literacy skills, enhancing math skills, offering more after-school help, strengthening middle and high schools, improving professional development for principals and teachers, and increasing parental involvement.

Let?s take a closer look at these strategies.

Enhancing literacy skills is one way that Denver Schools will reach the three goals mentioned above. Improving the literacy of all students, whether they are high achievers or students who struggle with reading is a necessity. Denver Schools realize this and are working to improve the literacy skills of their students.

Enhancing students? mathematics skills is another strategy adopted by Denver Schools to reach their goals. Again, looking to the future of their students is the motivation here. One of the Denver Schools main purposes is to turn out well-rounded, productive members of society. In order for our future leaders to contribute their best they need to be well educated; and possessing excellent math skills is important.

Offering more after-school help is a wonderful way for students in need to meet the above goals. Giving support to Denver Schools students who are having a hard time will not only raise test scores (which this writer hopes isn?t their only motivation), but will also help raise the students? confidence in themselves as well.

Strengthening Denver Schools, especially at the middle and high school levels is vitally important if they truly intend to meet their goals of improvement. Middle- and high school-age students are going through lots of changes. Not only are their bodies changing and their emotions are running wild. Members of the opposite sex have become extremely important and hormones are raging. Peer pressure has reached an all-time high, and the desire to fit in and be like everyone else is strong. Denver Schools must recognize these challenges their students are facing and work to be more supportive. Improving professional development for principals and teachers, the 5th strategy that will help Denver Schools meet their goals, will also help them strengthen their middle and high schools.

The importance of parental involvement may seem to be a no-brainer to some, but there are a surprisingly large number of parents of Denver Schools students who do not realize how much their involvement in their child?s school contributes to their success. It doesn?t matter if the parent volunteers at the school, attends school functions, or simply helps with homework ? it all influences the success of their Denver Schools student.

Starter’s Guide For GMAT Syllabus And Preparation

GMAT, also known as Graduate Management Admission Test, is a global management exam that is taken by students aspiring for top business and management schools and universities. It is quite obvious and easy to understand that the competition is prodigious because as many as 5500 management courses accept the score for admissions. The GMAT syllabus has been designed to test many aspects of high school and graduate learning like mathematics, English grammar, reasoning and comprehension skills. If you are appearing for the first time for GMAT, you need to know the pattern of the exam and the study plan that will help to get a satisfactory score.

1. Know the pattern: There are essential parts of GMAT namely analytical, grammar and quantitative sections. The analytical assessment and writing section examines your writing knowledge. You are given an essay, for which, the examiner will be testing your writing style and effectiveness of language and content. The next section is the quantitative section, which tests arithmetical, geometrical and algebraic knowledge. You are allowed 75 minutes to complete 37 questions. Most questions belong from your knowledge at high school and graduation level mathematics. The third and final section is the verbal section where you have to pass critical reasoning, comprehension and sentence correction questions. Again, you get 75 minutes to solve a total of 41 questions.

2. Know the right coaching: GMAT is tough to crack, especially if you do not have assistance and guidance from subject teachers and experts. Take a look in your city to find the best coaching. In India, cities like Bangalore and Chennai have decent coaching centers, which offer the best study materials and excellent coaching options for all sections separately. If you need to polish your verbal section skills, you can choose to acquire coaching only for that. For students in remote areas, they can still gain knowledge with online courses, which offer live classes, course materials and extensive email support.

3. Know the right study plan: Undoubtedly, GMAT is a hard-hitting exam, but if you do the right planning, then probably, you will have no issues with course coverage. You can include four months of extensive coaching, two months of self study and practice and regular mock tests to cover up every section. Practice papers and tests are particularly relevant on a regular and planned basis as it helps to test your knowledge at every step. Also, it is advisable to take up a few workshops for knowing and understanding common concepts and question types.

All competitive exams are about right blend of knowledge and time management, which clearly indicates that you need to have certain tricks and tips to save time. You can maximize the course knowledge by joining group discussions in classrooms and other online forums. If possible, you can talk to a few successful candidates to find their methodology for preparation. Lastly, apart from concentrating on GMAT syllabus, you also need to have a certain time for leisure activities as that will help to rejuvenate from within and have enhanced focus on the studies.

Carbon Capture And Storage

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an approach to mitigating climate change by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources such as power plants and subsequently storing it away safely instead of releasing it into the atmosphere. Technology for capturing of CO2 is already commercially available for large CO2 emitters, such as power plants. Storage of CO2, on the other hand, is a relatively untried concept and as yet (2006) no power plant operates with a full carbon capture and storage system. Currently, United States government has approved the construction of world's first CCS power plant, FutureGen, while BP has indicated that it intends to develop a 350 MW carbon capture and storage plant in Scotland, in which the carbon from natural gas will be stripped out and pumped into the Miller field in the North Sea.

CCS applied to a modern conventional power plant could reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by approximately 80-90% compared to a plant without CCS. Capturing and compressing CO2 requires a great deal of energy and would increase the fuel needs of a plant with CCS by 10-40%. These and other system costs are estimated to increase the cost of energy from a power plant with CCS by 30-60% depending on the specific circumstances.

Storage of the CO2 is envisaged either in deep geological formations, deep oceans, or in the form of mineral carbonates. Geological formations are currently considered the most promising, and these are estimated to have a storage capacity of at least 2000 Gt CO2. IPCC estimates that the economic potential of CCS could be between 10% and 55% of the total carbon mitigation effort until year 2100.

Capturing and compressing CO2 requires much energy, significantly raising the costs of operation, apart from the added investment costs. It would increase the energy needs of a plant with CCS by about 10-40%. This, the costs of storage, and other system costs are estimated to increase the costs of energy from a power plant with CCS by 30-60%, depending on the specific circumstances.

The costs of CCS are dominated by costs of capture. The storage is relatively cheap, geological storage in saline formations or depleted oil or gas fields typically cost $0.5-8 per ton of CO2 injected, plus an additional $0.1-0.3 for monitoring costs. However, when storage is combined with Enhanced oil recovery to extract extra oil from an oil field, the storage could yield net benefits of $10-16 per ton of CO2 injected (based on 2003 oil prices).


Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction. It occurs when someone is exposed to an allergen and their body generates an extreme shutdown response. The immune system goes into overdrive and takes more precautions than necessary, resulting in a loss of normal functioning. The most common triggers are food allergens such as peanuts, insect allergens such as bees, and medication allergens such as penicillin. Anyone who has an allergy is at risk, but those with a family history of an anaphylactic response as well as those with asthma are more likely to experience this reaction. People with these types of allergies may experience anaphylaxis upon exposure even if their past allergic reactions have been very mild.

A typical anaphylactic reaction may begin within minutes after exposure to the allergen, although in some cases the reaction may be delayed for up to an hour. Symptoms may begin with itching and hives and progress to breathing problems, clammy skin, swelling of the lips and face, vomiting, and unconsciousness. Low blood pressure and a low pulse usually accompany this reaction. The body eventually goes into a state of shock known as anaphylactic shock.

When someone is experiencing an anaphylactic reaction, it is very important that they seek emergency medical attention right away. If left untreated, it could result in unconsciousness or even death. Although possible, death from anaphylaxis is very uncommon. Death is preventable with quick and proper medical attention.

Treatment usually involves an injection of epinephrine. If the person has stopped breathing, CPR may also be necessary. In some cases, antihistamines or cortisone may be given by IV. This is usually followed by monitoring until all of the symptoms have diminished. If the cause of the anaphylaxis is unknown, a doctor can conduct allergy tests to help identify the trigger. It is very easy to test the most common triggers, but in some cases the cause of an anaphylactic shock may never be known.

Some people with known allergies and a history of anaphylaxis may carry an epinephrine injection with them at all times in case of emergency. If they recognize exposure to the trigger allergen early enough, they may administer the injection themselves but if they are incapacitated, it is important that family or friends administer the injection as soon as possible. For this reason, family and friends are usually trained in proper epinephrine injection procedures upon diagnosis. It is still important to see a doctor following a self-treated episode of anaphylaxis to ensure symptoms do not return.

Anaphylaxis can be a very frightening experience, but it is important to remember that is not uncommon and is very treatable. Knowing the symptoms and acting quickly nearly always results in a positive resolution.

What Are The Benefits Of Adobe 9a0-088 Certification Exams?

The exam name for Adobe 9A0-088 is Adobe illustrator CS4. This certification recognizes the candidate?s proficiency in adobe illustrator CS4. It also helps the candidates to recognize the ability to use the software features as well as functions such as altering images, creating attractive illustrations, retouching images, introducing logo and text in the image and other types of artworks etc. Candidates can successfully become as adobe certified expert after successfully completing this certification. This examination will also help the candidates to persuade the adobe certified instructor certification course after successfully completing this exam.

Job roles included for this certification:

Successful certified candidates can get placed in various job roles in top multinational companies and the following are some of the job roles included for Adobe 9A0-088 certified candidates. They are:

1) Web designer
2) Graphic designer
3) System developer
4) System integrator etc

Exam objectives and total questions asked in each section during examination:

The following are the adobe 9A0-088 certification exam objectives and total number of questions asked in the examination from each section. They are:

1) Working with the illustration documents- 20% (13 questions)
2) Transforming as well as drawing objects- 17% (11 questions)
3) Managing the color and transparency- 9% (6 questions)
4) Usage type- 12% (8 questions)
5) Appearance, graphic style as well as controlling effects- 8% (5 questions)
6) Building up of graphic objects- 12% (8 questions)
7) Working with the images- 5% (3 questions)
8) Preparation for flash and web- 8% (5 questions)
9) Preparation for print- 9% (6 questions)

The examination consists of 65 questions totally with multiple choices and there are no case study type questions. Candidates are required to score at least 65% in the examination in order to pass. Examination can be registered online in the Pearson VUE website by paying the exam fee online. Once the exam fee has been paid, candidates are allowed to schedule for the examination like date, time, session etc.

Oniang’o Sees Urgent Need For Food Biotechnology In Africa

Twenty-five percent of the undernourished people in the developing world are located in sub-Saharan Africa; and according to FAO, approximately 35 percent of the population in 14 countries in this region are chronically undernourished. However, efforts to reduce hunger have been hampered by a shortage of arable land, inadequate rainfall, low soil fertility and the devastating effects of plant pests and diseases.

"I've been saddened. I've gotten frustrated at the levels of hunger, levels of food insecurity on this continent, food crises one after another," says The Honorable Ruth Oniang'o, a member of the Parliament of Kenya and Professor of Food Science and Nutrition at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. "We have not always been food insecure. I think what has happened is we have not kept up with the world events, with the technologies. ? And I don't know of any country, which developed without using science and technology."

Increasing or intensifying food production is key to reducing hunger in sub-Saharan Africa, where 50-75 percent of the population and labor force is engaged in agriculture. Most of the African people earn their living by producing food, which means a family's income-earning potential is closely linked to agricultural productivity. Increases in agricultural productivity also positively impact rural economies by increasing food availability, reducing food prices in local markets, and generating an increased demand for other products linked to agriculture.

"And so I believe that it is incumbent on our government and on our scientists ? to bring a technology, which can address a small-scale farmer," says Dr. Oniang'o, founder and executive director of Rural Outreach Program ? a not-for-profit organization that undertakes development activities aimed at improving the livelihoods of the rural poor in Kenya, more than 55 percent of whom live below the poverty line. "They need different kinds of information, and I believe that science has now come up with this technology ? biotechnology. I'm not saying it's going to be a magic bullet, but surely it should be one of the major approaches to use."

Using food biotechnology, researchers can provide protection against plant pests and diseases through the seed, requiring small-scale farmers to use few ? if any ? additional inputs or machinery. Modern food biotechnology has been identified as the most potent technology for rescuing Africa from the effects of food shortages, just as the Green Revolution did for the countries of Southeast Asia in the 1970s.

"And, we already have situations where we know this is working. In South Africa, I'm aware and I've been there ? it is working. You know, when we're hungry, we actually import maize from South Africa. So for us to sit here telling ourselves ? oh, we don't want biotech food, and ? we can't bring this to our farmers ? it is not right," continues Oniang'o, who has influenced research, development and discourse on food security and nutrition in Africa, as well as globally.

Biotech varieties of cotton, corn and soy are approved for commercial planting in South Africa and account for approximately 92 percent of cotton, 29 percent of corn and 59 percent of soybeans grown in the country. While South Africa is currently the only country with commercial plantings of food biotechnology crops, nine countries have conducted field trials in Africa including Burkina Faso, Egypt, Kenya, Morocco, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. An additional 11 countries are engaged in food biotechnology research and development.

"What I would like is to see a situation where families can feed themselves," says Oniang'o. "I believe we should start now. We can't say we shall start in a decade, or next year. No, no, no. We need to start now."

? 2007 Monsanto Company. All rights reserved. The copyright holder consents to the use of this material and the images in the published context only and solely for the purpose of promoting the benefits of agricultural biotechnology.

Get Free Money For School And Don’t Mess With Student Loans

It is more important than ever to become a successful student in today's world of education. If you want to stand tall and rise above all of the hype and distractions, then you need to focus on how to get free money for school so you don't have to mess with student loans.

I mean 't you have enough stress and worries out there, like getting good grades and participating in other important activities?

I would say that your answer would be yes.

First of all, trying to get student loans can really be stressful for a student that needs to get money for school. Not only do you have to wait for several weeks for the money to arrive, but you also end up paying a high interest percentage that will have you paying on your loans for years after you graduate.

This is not a route that you want to go.

There are so many students that are trying to meet their financial aid criteria, only to discover that the government does not give the student the money that they really need to go though school.

Here are some ways that you can get free money for school...

If you have a computer and internet access, then go out there on the web and start searching. You can find different resources that will help you find the money that you need to go to school.

Go look at different websites, including educational and financial blogs. This will start to get things rolling for you.

These sites are great, because they are packed with all kinds of tools and resources that will help you in your search. You will start to discover sites that have links to many different funding programs, without having to pay those high interest student loans.

The next step that you need to do, is to start to take action! I mean, get in there and start to make things happen for yourself.

For example, put a resume together and with all the benefits of a small business sponsoring you. This can be a great way for a small business to get some exposure.

The last step is to go online and start to take advantage of the free money, that is out there at your disposal.

Just submit some informations and fill out a quick and easy form.

That's all there is to it!

So don't worry about having to mess with stiudent loans, when you can get free money for school. It's really a no brainer.

Get out there and make it happen for yourself today!

A Digital Camera Great For Travel

The Canon Power shot SD1100 IS provides an 8 mega pixel shot, which translates to a stunningly beautiful picture on even the most advanced monitors. Users who care about style will note the different metallic colors it comes in, and those who suffer from shaky hands (much like myself) will marvel at its ability to auto correct. Pictures that should not have any right turning out steady and even seem to with ease, and the camera is just as fast as the commercials portray it to be, leaving no time for people to develop funny faces.

The Basics

The 1100 IS isn't what you might expect in a camera. Sleek styling and sound construction mean this camera fits in your pocket or purse with room to spare.

Don't be fooled. The 1100 IS offers 8 megapixels, instead of the older 7.1, to give you the absolute best quality for a camera this size. This means, the pictures you take will turn out crisp, clear, and bright.

Navigation is intuitive using a toggle wheel. You will be an expert at it after a few uses. In addition easy presets make it a simple point and shoot.

If you want to take custom ISO photos, change detailed flash settings and shutter timings this camera may not be for you. If you want easy to use, fast to be ready point and shoot then this is the camera for teh job.

Ease of Use

Most people want to pick up their digital, aim, and shoot. Everything after that is icing on the cake. And with the 11OO IS, you can do just that.

Just a button press or two will get you where you need to be, and even those who aren't familiar or comfortable using technology will be able to master this camera.

The buttons to navigate are all on the right side, so if you're left handed, you'll have a bit to get used to. But with the menu and selection buttons big enough for larger hands and easy to press, it doesn't make it hard to adjust.

Long Term Quality and Durability

This isn't the sort of camera that you'll need to replace in a year, we were pleased to discover. While its smaller design does warrant a bit of worry on the true durability, the camera feels sturdy in your hands and it can survive an accidental drop, or being roughed up a bit in a bag.

Image Quality

You'll get surprisingly good quality from this little camera, and the zoom (3x) gives you a decent bit of depth and clarity from such a small piece.

The face detection that's built in improves the focus and exposure when taking pictures of people, as well as a white balance and flash output. What this means to those of you who didn't follow is that you're less likely to make your friends look sheet-white when using flash. Vibrant colors and great details, with fairly correct skin tones.


The bottom line on this camera is that for everyday, casual use, it's great - and even amateurs who dapple in heavier things can appreciate the preset features and quality that you get.

While I will still recommend a serious SLR camera for those looking to become professional, this camera will help you improve your skill and capture great moments forever.